History If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Naturalism essentially contains a philosophical thesis that includes notions of determinism and causality, which results in portraying human beings as animals whose life is ruled by external forces. Miriam Gogol (Hrsg): Theodore Dreiser. In 1900 about 40 per cent of America’s 76 millionpeople lived in towns and cities. —these are the elements which Dreiser brings to the Creation of his novels. Andwalking along the opposite side of the river just now, he had seen through several openwindows whole rooms full of girls and women hard at work. Women couldnot vote, hold public office or sit on juries. Pages: 1 2. )Both novels An American Tragedy and Sister Carrie transform the genre ofbildungsroman. The Theodore Dreiser segment of C-SPAN's American writers series aired on 20 and 24 August 2001. Waves of immigrants were arriving, many from southeastern Europe.As a result of these processes, countless city dwellers were crowded into tenement slums,with high rates of disease and infant mortality. Text is available unner the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms mey apply. (Elliott, 1988: 534-535)Naturalism in America was not the same movement as naturalism in Europe. (i[r].q = i[r].q || []).push(arguments) (Elliott, 1988: 542-543)6His first novel, Sister Carrie (1900), stuck such a blow at contemporary expectationsthat for more than decade it was virtually ignored. The little Quakeress was marked for a favourite the moment she appeared, and thereafter easily held attention and applause. Theodore Dreiser, the author of Sister Carrie, informs the reader that, "Self-interest with her was high, but not strong. 2005. When he meets Carrie he falls desperately in love with her and, in what almost amounts to an abduction, abandons his family, steals $10,000 from his employers, and flees with her through Canada and into New York. Theodore Dreiser: Beyond Naturalism - Sprache: Englisch. Analytics.downloadButton = '.artscolumbia__essay-info__item_modal a'; Instead of the whole family working on one plot ofland, the father became the “breadwinner” and the mother guardian of the home. : 396)American cities, springing into life out of mere villages, often organized around nothingbut the mill, the factory, or the railroad, peopled by a heterogeneous and mobile population,and drawing upon no settled governing classes for administrative experience, found the paceof their growth far out of proportion to their capacity for management. Carrie, on the other hand, rises rapidly from the moment she leaves Hurstwood. Some, such as Hardy, began as literary realists and, in the wake of Darwin’s theory of evolution, were drawn into the naturalist mode. Greenwood, Westport, Conn. u. a. It exemplifies the naturalism of which Dreiser was a proponent, telling the unhappy story of a working-class woman who accepts all the adversity life visits on her and becomes the mistress of two wealthy and powerful men in order to Shocking to contemporary readers—or reviewers, for there were few if any readers at first—was the amoral attitude from which Sister Carrie was written. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Machinery was taking over the country.(ibid. He … ISBN 0-520-23481-2; Keith Newlin: A Theodore Dreiser encyclopedia. Looking for a flexible role? I have decided to do three initial design ideas, all different from each other and then ask the English rep which one he prefers and if there are any other things he would like included. At any rate, lawyers and doctors were alwaysvirtuous in this world and marriage was never marred by erratic behavior. Citylife and increasing prosperity meant more leisure time. : 311-312)9The time period from 1830s through the 1850s was truly the Age of Reform. Theodore Dreiser , Beyond Naturalism Florence Leaver Theodore Dreiser is another object lesson in the futility of attempting to paste a label on a writer. Though often disillusioned, she was still waiting for that halcyon day when she should be led forth among dreams become real. Sister Carrie: Theodore Dreiser’s Sociological Tragedy. A master of literary naturalism, Dreiser is known for his great intensity and keen journalistic eye as he examines real-life subjects. A life of Theodore Dreiser. As soon as the father finds out about his daughter’s death, he draws parallels with thesinful urban scene and a man who tempted her daughter:And at once, born for the most part of religion, convention and a general rural suspicionof all urban life and the mystery and involuteness of its ungodly ways, there sprang intohis mind the thought of a city seducer and betrayer – some youth of means, probably,whom Roberta had met since going to Lycurgus and who had been able to seduce her bya promise of marriage which he was not willing to fulfill. In Dreiser’s novels, impersonal energies always engulf desire. Naturalism essentially contains a philosophical thesis that includes notions of determinism and causality, which results in portraying human beings as animals whose life is ruled by external forces. :31)In the novel An American Tragedy Roberta Alden briefly electrifies the protagonistClyde Griffiths with her “poetic sensuality”, only to haunt him and the reader for the rest ofthe novel in the image of the corpse recovered from the depths of Big Bittern Lake, whosesexuality and desires are re-created in strangely intimate detail by pathologists andprosecutors in a spectacular murder trial. The central concerns of naturalism are the forces that shapeand move humanity and our inability to control them. (function(d,s,a,b){a=d.createElement(s);b=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];a.async=1;a.src="https://static.addtoany.com/menu/page.js";b.parentNode.insertBefore(a,b);})(document,"script"); DOMAIN = 'artscolumbia.org'; Sexualizing Power in Naturalism: Theodore Dreiser and Frederick Philip Grove. One reads the text books; they call him "naturalist," but when one has thus described him, the spirit of the man has been violated. The “naturalists” wrote novels in which particular motivesmattered less than conditions that dictated events. Next Dreiser's Ideas and Philosophy. Onthe one hand, a new group of tremendously wealthy entrepreneurs and capitalists appeared.This social class displayed their wealth openly. The water supplywas constantly in danger of becoming contaminated. :302) Soon after the canals and steamboats wereformed, in 1830s came a still more significant technological advance- the railroad. Dreiser would be the first to insist, the culture that Sister Carrie reflects is groundedin economic conditions. As a “fallen woman” she is in no wise judged; and even more astonishing, Drouet is shown to be flashy, crude, essentially shallow, but nevertheless at the antipodes from villainy. (Dreiser, 2010: 182)The particular factory in Lycurgus is an example of typical factory of the early 20thcentury, where women make the big amount of workforce. (Jaycox, 2005: 30)Between 1860 and 1900 the United States went through one of most dramatic periods ofchange in its entire history. Although it failed to attain the approval of its first audience, this novel is one of the most renowned texts of American naturalism that is still getting the attention of critics and readers. The only thing that stood between them and starvation was uninsured weekly wages.Unfortunately, even with full employment, unskilled workers could not support the bareminimum needs of a family, unless their wives and children also worked for wages and eventhen it was a daily struggle. : 476)By the turn of the century Theodore Dreiser was one of the writers who began rejectingcertain illusions about individual choice- illusions elaborately sustained in the populartradition of literary romance. Even whenthe level of education of women was improved, the main goal of such studies was to preparewomen for marriage and motherhood, not for a “masculine” career. Throughout his career, Dreiser wrote for a variety of periodicals in order to earn enough money to support himself. (Dreiser, 2010: 537)12Reformation of gender in the late nineteenth centuryTo understand the future changes of roles of men and women in the American society, whatProgressive Era and industrialization bring, it is important to understand the situation beforechanges. ISBN 0-8147-3073-6; Jerome Loving: The last titan. Women Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago, 1880-1930. As soon as Carrie arrives in... Theodore DreiserTheAmericanDreamCourtney ConnorsEnglish III CPMr. 2003. (Werlock, 2009:199)Dreiser is primary known as a novelist, but his best short stories show a sophisticatedunderstanding of the short story form, perhaps because Dreiser worked in journalismthroughout his life. Through a queer juxtaposition of incidents, and with only small regard for the worthiness of their impulses, one character achieves fame and comfort while another loses his social position, wealth, pride, and finally his life. Beyond naturalism. However, the nature of farming during these yearsunderwent many important changes. (ibid. Farm productivity- the yield of each acreof farmland- almost doubled as well. Von Theodore Dreiser Either she falls into saving hands and becomes better, or she rapidly assumes the cosmopolitan standard of virtue and becomes worse. (Garraty,1982: 400)In 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton with Lucretia Coffin Mott organized a Women’s RightsConvention at Seneca Falls, New York. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Univ. It is by the merest chance that he finds the safe open on the very night when he had planned to disappear. : 401)From the founding of the U.S. through the early 19th century, the economy had beenprimarily agricultural, with the individual household the center of production. 2 (2016): 38-55. Large cities grew into great metropolises, small towns grew into large cities,and new towns sprang into existence on vacant land. h.hj=h.hj||function() ga('require', 'ec'); I would say, ?as many eyes, so many opinions?, so no wonder there are different approaches and interpretations towards the novel which is influenced not just by the reader's reading or personal experience, but also by their particular philosophy of life as well as knowledge about the historical background. (ibid. Analytics.sendButton = '#modalmailsender button:submit'; 4) Now it's time to remove your logo from the background, get the polygonal lasso tool and carefully cut it out.5) Now go to Edit ; Copy, then open the user bar... To this day, Sister Carrie remains one of the most controversial novels of its time. This page wis last eeditit on 15 Apryle 2017, at 16:55. ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Darwin’s theories led to the survival-of-thefittest concept of human social evolution. The first half of this program—expounding the purposelessness of life—is the backbone of his first novel, Sister Carrie, published in 1900. ga('require', 'linkid'); No problem! He is good-hearted and generous; in fact he has every intention of marrying Carrie—although he does not ever do so. The most critically inadequate public servicewas sanitation. "Sister Carrie" can be read as a novel of desire, seduction, or the critique of capitalism and consumerism. The age resounds with the warnings of prophets like Josiah Strong thatthe city, if not somehow tamed, would bring with it the downfall of the nation. It is a complex and compassionate account of the life and death of a young antihero named Clyde Griffiths. (ibid. (Online 1)The novel An American Tragedy pictures Lycurgus, a city that demonstrates growingfactories and women workforce:This enormous factory! (Taschenbuch) - portofrei bei eBook.de Thesecond almost inevitable approach involves this difference. r.src=t+h._hjSettings.hjid+j+h._hjSettings.hjsv; Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) American author, outstanding representative of naturalism, whose novels depict real-life subjects in a harsh light. A life of Theodore Dreiser. :182-183)In his works, Dreiser turns to sexuality as the major driving force in life, holding it up asa force of progress endlessly engaged in battles against sexually repressive social conventionsand institutions. It's definitely not the plot or characters which are dominant elements of it.... Theodore Dreisers Sister Carrie is a simple tale of a young, pretty eighteen year old girl Caroline Meeber also know as Carrie. m.parentNode.insertBefore(a, m) Die Städte Chicago und New York stellen im Roman verschiedene Stationen der Protagonisten Carrie und Hurstwood dar und sind Schauplätze zweier Experimente, in die die Protagonisten hineinversetzt werden. (ibid. Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (/ ˈ d r aɪ s ər, -z ər /; August 27, 1871 – December 28, 1945) wis an American novelist an jurnalist o the naituralist schuil. (Online 1) The novels capture the origins of modern life that is sofamiliar for us- people of 21st century.The story takes place in the late 19th century- the beginning of 20th century in America,particularly in growing cities such as Chicago and New York. There is no inevitable punishment for transgression, no suggestion that there ought to be. Among educated and professional women, teaching was the primary occupation andnursing a second. (Gammel, 1994:5)8HISTORICAL CONTEXT IN SISTER CARRIE AND AN AMERICANTRAGEDYTh. In the manufacturing department, I venture to say there are tenwomen to every man,” says Gilbert, who is the son of the factory’s owner. (Online 4)7Surrounded by an aura of what Dreiser often calls a “pagan” sensuality, many of hisfemale characters paradoxically also exude a strange sense of sexual abstinence, almostchastity. Annotation. (Garraty,1982 :291)As factories came to the life of America, so did the immigrants from Europe- England,Ireland, Germany to find the better life. (ibid. entitled Theodore Dreiser: Beyond Naturalism (New York: New York UP, 1995) x Sexualizing Power in Naturalism that helped me shape my thoughts on Dreiser's conceptualization of female sexuality. Therefore, they could develop their interests andactivities. (Garraty, 1982: 551)Factories and machinery were developed what increased the amount a worker couldproduce. But life is eternally seeking, searching, striving, throbbing—life is the single positive element in a cosmos of ruthless flux. Theodore Dreiser was born in Terre Haute, Indiana on August 27, 1871. Jennie Gerhardt, novel by Theodore Dreiser, published in 1911. Carrie does not have any idea how hard this is going to be.When she tries to find a job, she is scared. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? (Werlock, 2009: 475-476)American naturalism began in the 1890s and Theodore Dreiser was one of itsrepresentatives. (…) Let us cease, then, to view all democratic nations under the example of the American people.’ Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835/1840 When in 1497 John Cabot and his sailing crew landed on the North American coast, he was guiding the first colonists to a land blessed and chosen by God. Dreiser Online contains recent bibliographies (since 1990), genealogies, a chronology of works, a brief biographical sketch, and a Dreiser chronology. 1995. Pizer, one of Dreiser’s principal critics over the past forty years, is especially concerned in establishing the distinctive nature and quality of Dreiser’s naturalism in many of these essays. ISBN 0-520-23481-2; Keith Newlin: A Theodore Dreiser encyclopedia. He also fell so ill that he was sent to the family's country house to convalesce. Jennie Gerhardt is a tragic romantic novel following the destitute young Jennie through loves and losses. (Gammel, 1994:1)The 19th century naturalism established itself as a literature with the right to articulatethe “truth” on sexuality; the 20th century American naturalism continued this tradition at atime that witnessed radical changes in sexual behavior and norms. In 1790 the first factories were just being builtwhich in nearest future changed the formation of American cities. ISBN 0-520-23481-2; Keith Newlin: A Theodore Dreiser encyclopedia. ga('create', 'UA-90324623-5', 'auto'); […] the high red walls ofthe building suggested energy and very material success, a type of success that wasalmost without flaw, as he (Clyde) saw it. The first place we can see that is in the literary movement known as naturalism. It is an electronic version of a book that can be purchased in physical form through any bookseller or on-line retailer, or from our distributors. Factories demanded centralized labor, large groups ofunrelated people leaving the home and working under one roof. Greenwood, Westport, Conn. u.a. Greenwood, Westport, Conn. u.a. )Throughout the 19th century, most Americans believed that women and men occupiedseparate spheres of life. Sorry, but downloading is forbidden on this website. The genre itself charts the protagonist’s actual or metaphorical journey fromyouth to maturity. This tended to raise wages and lower prices. In sum, 44 cities had populationsof more than 50,000, for the total of nearly 12 million Americans residing in cities ofsignificant size. ga('send', 'pageview'); Analytics.emailInput = '.artscolumbia__essay-info__preview a'; (function (i, s, o, g, r, a, m) { American novelist Theodore Dreiser popularized naturalism in the United States during the early 1900s. (ibid. Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser ( 27 august 1871 – 28 decembrie 1945) a fost un scriitor naturalist american, cunoscut pentru modul în care trata realitatea vieții în operele sale. Darwin’s theories led to the survival-of-thefittest concept of human social evolution. of California Press, Berkeley u. a. Sister Carrie: Theodore Dreiser’s Sociological Tragedy. At this crucial instance begins Carrie’s rise in the world. Two novels were published after his death. However, they werenot the only ones searching for the better life in cities, as Americans were joined by the largenumber of immigrants who had the same goals. His novels often featured main characters who succeeded at their objectives despite a lack of a firm moral code, and literary situations that more closely resemble studies of nature than tales of choice and agency. (ibid. In the first stage he was expounding his conviction of the essential urposelessness of life and attacking the conventional ethical codes which to him seemed to hold men to standards of conduct that had no ational basis in fact, while they condemned others without regard to what Dreiser thought might be the real merits of their situations. })(window,document,'https://static.hotjar.com/c/hotjar-','.js?sv='); We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Many did not believe that the main problem was overproducing. By 1890 several major cities – Chicago, New10York, Milwaukee, Detroit- had populations of which more than 80 percent were eitherimmigrants or the children of immigrants. Brooklyn, New York,had 103 women and only 17 men. IF THERE is such a thing as a born artist, Joan Miro was one. Two of his most well-known novels, Sister Carrie (1900) and An American Tragedy (1925), depicted characters who were motivated by their selfish impulses, not by their sense of ethics. I think it is very difficult to define the exact character of Dreisers "Sister Carrie", and his original intention. Sexualizing Power in Naturalism: Theodore Dreiser and Frederick Philip Grove. In contrast to realism, which attempted to captureordinary American life as it unfolded in cities … How about receiving a customized one? Frank Cowperwood, a fiercely ambitious businessman, emerges as the very embodiment of greed as he relentlessly seeks satisfaction in wealth, women, and power. 2003. You can view samples of our professional work here. But they all also expressed … Study for free with our range of university lectures! (Jaycox, 2005: 20-21)Some farmers in the near-Midwest and on the Pacific coast adjusted successfully to thenew conditions. Émile Zola, Thomas Hardy, George Eliot, Theodore Dreiser, Jack London, and Stephen Crane are examples of authors who wrote in this vein. The three stages of Theodore Dreiser’s Naturalism Essay THE naturalism of Theodore Dreiser may be approached through a study of his personality, the sort of experiences he had in his forma- tive years, and the philosophical speculations which grew from his ex- periences and his reading. (ibid. “The firstcity,” wrote Strong, “was built by the first murderer, and crime and vice and wretchednesshave festered in it ever since.” (Hofstadter, 1955: 176)Farms were strongly affected by the industrialization- both financially and morally. In contrast to realism, which attempted to captureordinary American life as it unfolded in cities and rural areas in the middle and late 19thcentury, naturalism employed harsher outdoor settings and placed characters in trying4situations where they often confronted natural forces. He was dazzled by the beautiful women and struck by the contrasts ofpoverty and wealth. ISBN 0-8147-3073-6; Jerome Loving: The last titan. The delegates to the convention issued a DeclarationOf Sentiments modeled on the Declaration of Independence. Reference this, Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) was born in Terre Haute, Indiana and had immigrant roots. The time from 1790 till 1840 isthe time when America was built. {(h.hj.q=h.hj.q||[]).push(arguments)}; He chose to address themes of human existence in a more determinist waythan the realists who preceded them. 1995. In August of 1889, Carrie Meeber leaves her small town to find employment in the city of Chicago. People believed that women’s brains and nervous systems could notstand the strain of studying difficult subjects such as chemistry and mathematics. Dreiser wrote his novels based on what he saw himself. This paper will show Dreiser's own Naturalism by giving a detailed analysis of Hurstwood's fall. Nowhere is there a moral pointed. Hurstwood goes down and down—to poverty, destitution, begging, starvation, and finally suicide. (Werlock, 2009:200)Theodore Dreiser was one of practitioner of American naturalism, and his importantworks elude classification as “pessimistic”, “optimistic” or “reform”. To Dreiser some such mystical principle represents the force which perhaps lies behind the wonder and terror and mystery of life. He would need to delight himself with Carrie as surely as he would need to eat his heavy breakfast. Dreiser's best known novels include Sister Carrie and An American Tragedy. m = s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0]; Pages: 1 2. window.a2a_config=window.a2a_config||{};a2a_config.callbacks=[];a2a_config.overlays=[];a2a_config.templates={}; Greenwood, Westport, Conn. u. a. Not surprisingly, given his tone and subject matter, Dreiser started off his career as a journalist before turning to writing fiction. Answer, first, why the heart thrills; explain wherefore some plaintive note goes wandering about the world, undying; make clear the rose’s subtle alchemy evolving its ruddy lamp in light and rain.